During the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) of China, millions of square-holed "cash" coins were produced each year. The use of individual mint names and privy marks for sub-mints on the coins, and ever-changing economic conditions led to great variety in the coin types issued by the dynasty. The conquest of Xinjiang, and the Taiping rebellion also contributed to the variety of coins. This book is the first to deal with the coins of the dynasty as a whole, and to address many problems of chronology and attribution that have not been hitherto considered.
The introductory chapters discuss the general historical background and the manufacture and use of cash. This leads into a methodology for dating cash more precisely than previously attempted. A detailed catalogue of the coins follows this. Coins of the rebels and pretenders not bearing a mint name are considered first; then issues with a mint name are discussed and listed province by province. The history and production of each mint are illustrated by quotations from contemporary documents. Lastly, coin-like amulets and presentation pieces not intended for general circulation are illustrated. Overall, some 2,100 different coins are listed. A number of appendices guide those not familiar with Chinese through the differences between the Pinyin and Wade romanisations.
Chinese Coinage Web Site